Predicting cytogenetic risk in multiple myeloma using conventional whole‑body MRI, spinal dynamic contrast‑enhanced MRI, and spinal diffusion‑weighted imaging

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T. Van Den Berghe et al.

Van Den Berghe T. et al.  (2024)  Predicting cytogenetic risk in multiple  myeloma using conventional whole‑body MRI, spinal dynamic contrast‑enhanced MRI, and spinal diffusion‑weighted imaging  Insights into Imaging 15:106


Objectives Cytogenetic abnormalities are predictors of poor prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM). This paper aims to build and validate a multiparametric conventional and functional whole-body MRI-based prediction model for cytogenetic risk classification in newly diagnosed MM.
Methods Patients with newly diagnosed MM who underwent multiparametric conventional whole-body MRI, spinal dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-)MRI, spinal diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and had genetic analysis were retrospectively included (2011–2020/Ghent University Hospital/Belgium). Patients were stratified into standard versus intermediate/high cytogenetic risk groups. After segmentation, 303 MRI features were extracted. Univariate and model-based methods were evaluated for feature and model selection. Testing was performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and precision-recall curves. Models comparing the performance for genetic risk classification of the entire MRI protocol and of all MRI sequences separately were evaluated, including all features. Four final models, including only the top three most predictive features, were evaluated.
Results Thirty-one patients were enrolled (mean age 66 ± 7 years, 15 men, 13 intermediate-/high-risk genetics). None of the univariate models and none of the models with all features included achieved good performance. The best performing model with only the three most predictive features and including all MRI sequences reached a ROCarea-under-the-curve of 0.80 and precision-recall-area-under-the-curve of 0.79. The highest statistical performance was reached when all three MRI sequences were combined (conventional whole-body MRI + DCE-MRI + DWI). Conventional MRI always outperformed the other sequences. DCE-MRI always outperformed DWI, except for specificity.
Conclusions A multiparametric MRI-based model has a better performance in the noninvasive prediction of highrisk cytogenetics in newly diagnosed MM than conventional MRI alone.

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Insights into Imaging